The Name of Allah Al Qaadir, Al Qadeer & Al Muqtadeer (Part 6) – Sunday 18th Dec 2011
Posted by Enlightenment into Islam Center
The Belief in the Decree and Pre-ordainment (Qadaa’ and Qadar)
One of the greatest article of faith is belief in the Qadar.
The meaning of Qadar linguistically is to put a thing in a manner that is willed by the one who puts it.
The meaning of Qadar in the Shari’a is Allah’s estimation for things by
- His Knowledge of its times of occurrence and the way it will occur.
- By writing them
- by willing them to occur
- by creating them.
These are the four ranks of Qadar.
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) says in Suart al-Qamar Verse 49:
إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ
“Indeed, all things We created with predestination.”
(Divine Pre-ordainment of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decree – Al Lawh al Mahfoodh)
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Ahzab, Verse 38:
“There is not to be upon the Prophet any discomfort concerning that which Allah has imposed upon him. [This is] the established way of Allah with those [prophets] who have passed on before. And ever is the command of Allah a destiny decreed.”
And He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Furqan, Verse 12:
وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرا
“He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.”
The Three verses indicate :
1- Allah (Azza wa Jal) has created everything with Qadar ( Divine Pre-Ordainment of all things before their creation as written in the Book of
2- The belief in the Qadaa’ and Qadar and also signifies the Names Al-Qaadir, al Qadeer and al-Muqtadir.
Whoever does not believe in the Qadar then he does not believe in Allah (Azza wa Jal). Why?
Imam Ahmed (Rahimahullaah) said: “Qadar is the Ability of Allah.” [Minhaj as Sunnah by Ibn Taymiyyah and Shifa’ al-Ghaleel by Ibn al-Qayyim]
This means that Allah’s decree of matters shows His Ability and Power. So denial of the Qadar is denial of the Ability of Allah (Aza wa Jal), and denying His Attributes or some of His Attributes contradicts the belief in Him. This is because one of the basics or articles of faith is to belief in His Decrees. Therefore, whoever does not believe in the Qadar, he has disbelieved in Allah.
The Relation of the Qadaa’ and Qadar with the Names Al-Qadir, Al Qadeer and Al Muqtadir?
As Imam Ahmed said above, “Qadar is the Ability of Allah.” Whatever happens or occurs to you of the decreed matter shows Allah’s Ability in decreeing matters (estimating & writing them).
Ibn Abbas (Radia Allaahu ‘anhu) said “Even putting your hand on your cheek is by the Qadar of Allah, it is written in the preserved tablet (Al Lawh al Mahfoodh).” To that extent everything is known to him and He has decreed it.
Ibn Abbas (Raida Allaahu ‘anhu) said: “Al Qadar disciplines the Tawheed, whoever believes in the Oneness of Allah (Azza wa Jal) and believes in the Qadar, then this is the trusthworthy hand hold (‘Urwa thul wusqa) that will never break. And whoever believes in the Oneness of Allah and belies the Qadar, then he had revoked (annuled, abolished) the Tawheed.” [al Qadar by Faryabi and Ibaanah by Ibn Battah]
Awf said that he heard al-Hasan saying: ” Who ever belies the Qadar then he has belied Islam. Verily Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) has
1- pre-ordained decrees and He has
2- created the creation with Qadar (divine pre-ordainment of all things before their creation as writen in al Lawh al Mahfoodh), and
3-He has distributed the terms (appointed time, life span) with Qadar,
4-He has distributed the provisions (sustenance) with Qadar, and
5-He has distributed the trials/afflictions or calamaties with Qadar and
6- He has distributed the ‘Aafiyah (Health, well- being) or calamities with Qadar.” [Ibaanah by Ibn Battah]
The belief in the Qadaa’ and Qadar (Pre-Ordainment) comprises of 4 ranks:
1-Knowledge (Al Qalam)
2-The Writing (Al Kitaba)
3-The Will (al Mashi’a)
4-The Creation (Al Khalq)
The Knowledge and the Writing is before the occurrence of the Qadar. i.e. before the creation of the heavens and the earth by 50,000 years.
The Will and the Creation is at the time of Qadar i.e Allah wills the decreed matter to happen at the time of Qadar, then He creates the Ability/ Power in the doer to do it.
1-Before the occurrence of the Qadar:
Knowledge: We believe that Allah knows about everything generally and also details He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) knows what is happening and what will happen. He knows about His Creations before creating them, He knew their provisions, due terms, their movements, their deeds, who will be of the people of Paradise and who will be of the people of Hell.
Everything is known to Him (Azza wa Jal) whether it is small (minute) or big, whether it is from His Action or the Action of His Creation.
The Evidence of this can be seen in Surat At Talaq, Verse 12 and Surat al An’am, verse 59.
Writing: We believe that Allah has written all what he had pre-ordained till the Judgement Day in a preserved Tablet before the creation of the heavens and the earth by 50,000 years.
The evidence of this can be seen in Surat al Hajj, Verse 70.
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) has estimated what will be or how it will be, His estimation is Perfect because His Knowledge is Perfect. While the human estimation is deficient because of the deficient knowledge.
2-During the occurrence of the Qadar:
Allah (Azza wa Jal) Wills whatever He has Pre-ordained (estimated) and has written it to happen. So He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) gives the doer the ability (strength) to perform it. Allah creates in him the ability to perform that action or prevent him from doing that action.
Ahl-us Sunnah wa Jama’ah believe that Allah’s will is executine and His Ability is comprehensive, whenever He wills, it is and what so ever He wills not, it will not happen. ther is no movement, no silence, no guidance, nor misguidance except with His Will.
The Evidence of this can be seen in Surat al-Baqarah: Verse 253, Surat at Takwir: Verse 28-29, Surat al-Kahf: Verse 23-24.
To Believe that there is nothing in the heavens nor in the earth but Allah has created it even the action of the created being has been created by Allah. You have no strength and power, you are not able to do anything, The One who created in you the Strength and pwer is the One who creates in you the action.
The evidence of this can be seen in Surat Az Zumar: Verse 62, and Surat As Saffat: Verse 96, Surat Al Hajj: Verse 70, Surat Ya-seen: verse 82.