The Name of Allah Al-Hakam, Al-Haakim & Al-Hakeem (Part 3) – Sunday 2nd Dec. 2012
One of the greatest names of Allaah is Al Hakeem. It has been mentioned in the Qur’aan profusely. This indicates that we need to understand this name and apply it in our life.
Al Hakeem implies two attributes:
Al Hukm literally means prevention. Allaah’s laws prevent mischief in the land. Allaah’s laws are for the sake of reformation in the land.
The Hukm is of three kinds:
1) Hukm Shari’
2) Hukm Jazaa’i
3) Hukm Qadari
In this life, we are under Allaah’s Hukm Shari’ and Qadari, and even sometimes Hukm Jazaa’i. There could be punishing of some people in this Dunya before the Aakhirah. Daily we are exposed to the Hukm Qadari of Allaah.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) has mentioned about his Hukm in the Qur’an. The name Al-Hakeem is joined with many times in the Qur’aan.
It is joined with:
1) Aleem – Baqarah: 32
2) Azeez – Anfal: 10
3) Khabeer – An’aam: 18
4) Tawwab – Surah Nur: 10
5) Hameed – Surah Fussilat: 42
When you see these evidences this indicates the importance of this name.
What does it mean when we say the Perfect decision belongs to Allaah? It means it is Allaah alone who decides and judges among His creation.
Let us see why Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) deserves to be the only One. Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says the Hukm belongs to Him and no one else. No one can repel the Hukm of Allaah if He decides a matter. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is the best of the Judges. There is no one like Allaah. This belief should be clear in your heart.
What should the impact of your belief in this be? How can we worship Allaah by this belief?
1) You have to know that the judgement and decision belongs to Allaah alone. Allah has no partner to share the decision with Him, whether it is Hukm Shari’, Hukm Qadari or Hukm Jazaa’i. Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is the only who decides the matter.
We may decide things for ourselves in our life. We may decide to go here, to get a job, to get married, etc. but Allaah’s Hukm prevails over your Hukm. Allaah’s Hukm dominates over your decision. This is an important fact, that Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is the only Hakam who decides or judges between falsehood and the truth.
We may see sometimes evil and oppression prevailing. Bear in mind that no matter how the oppression remains, one day it will come to an end. If you think oppression will last forever this contradicts the wisdom of Allaah.
A father died and the inheritance was distributed among the children and one brother took all the inheritance. Years passed and this brother lost all the money and the brothers who were oppressed were elevated and rich and this brother worked in their company.
Allaah’s Hukm is based on wisdom. When you see someone oppressing the other one you should know Allaah will not leave the person without punishment. You have to have firm faith that Allaah is the only one who decides and He decides between falsehood and truth.
2) When you affirm the Hukm to Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) alone you have to know that it comprises of all the perfect attributes of Allaah. The judge must be perfect in his knowledge, strength, wisdom, etc. Who has perfect attributes other than Allaah? Therefore no one can be a true judge except Allaah. The Hukm belongs to Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) because He is perfect. When He decides a matter, He decides for the benefit of the person.
Ibn Hassar said, “Hakam comprises of all the perfect names”. It is an Ism Jaami’ah, a comprehensive name, because it comprises of all the names of Allaah. This is why Allaah’s decision is the best.
Therefore, if you decide something for yourself, then the Hukm of Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) comes contradictory to what you decided, don’t be sad or angry because the Hukm of Allaah is based on perfect attributes. We are deficient. We may decide something for ourselves and our destruction may be in that decision. No one knows except Allaah. So accept it with a good heart, and know there is wisdom in that matter.
Therefore, judging to anyone other than Allaah in judgment is invalid. You have to only refer to Allaah’s book. This is a very important matter. We have to refer in our dispute or decisions to the book of Allaah and the Sunnah. Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is perfect in His judgement. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) set laws, so we have to accept. Every matter in the Islamic law, we have to accept because Allaah is the one who set this.
For example if the divorcee woman who has children intends to marry another man, her children should go to the ex-husband. This is the law of Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala), so we should accept it. Allah knows what is best for all of you. Many women don’t like it and don’t accept it, thinking it is oppression.
We should accept the law of Allaah with good heart. We should not judge to other than Allaah, otherwise it will be falsehood. No one is perfect in his judgement except Allaah.
Why is Allaah the only one who deserves to be the true Hakam and no one else?
1) In Surah Ghafir Verse 12:
ذَٰلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ ۖ وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا ۚ فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ
(It will be said): “This is because, when Allaah Alone was invoked (in worship, etc.) you disbelieved, but when partners were joined to Him, you believed! So the judgement is only with Allaah, the Most High, the Most Great!”
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) joined His Hukm with His two great names: Alee’ (the Most High) and Al Kabeer (the Most Great).
It is as if Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is telling you. See why the Judgement belongs to Him only? He is the most high in His essence, He is the most high in His attributes, He is perfect in all His attributes and in His justice.
Do you think the one who is righteous will be dealt with like the one who is not? Never, because Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is the most High and most perfect in His justice.
Do you think Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) will deal with the one whose earning is lawful like the one whose earning is unlawful?
The one who is dutiful to his parents will not be dealt with like the one who is not dutiful to his parents.
Al Kabeer – Great in His majesty, Authority, etc. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) said in Surah Qalam Verse 35-36:
أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ
Shall We then treat the (submitting) Muslims like the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists and disbelievers, etc.)?
مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ
What is the matter with you? How judge you?
And in Surah Jathiyah Verse 21:
أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَوَاءً مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ
Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death? Worst is the judgement that they make.
We might see that someone looks good and wonder why Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is inflicting her. Do you think Allaah makes the person who commits sins equalized with the person who does good deeds in their life and death? This contradicts Allaah’s wisdom. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is a just ruler.
2) In Surah Qasas Verse 70:
And He is Allaah; La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). His is all praise, in the first (i.e. in this world) and in the last (i.e. in the Hereafter). And for Him is the Decision, and to Him shall you (all) be returned.
What is the difference between Shukr and Hamd?
When someone does a favour, you do Shukr. It is in return of a favour. Al-Hamd is to praise someone even if He didn’t give you. You praise Him with love and exaltation, for His qualities and attributes.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says to Him belongs the praise in the Dunya and Aakhirah. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) will be praised in the Aakhirah AFTER judgement, by everyone, the believers and disbelievers. They will praise Him when they see His perfect justice, wisdom and perfect attributes on the Day of Judgement The people of hellfire will enter hellfire praising Allah because they have now seen the perfect attributes of Allaah.
In Verses 68 and 69 of this Surah:
وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ ۗ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter). Glorified be Allaah, and exalted above all that they associate as partners (with Him).
وَرَبُّكَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمْ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ
And your Lord knows what their breasts conceal, and what they reveal.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says He is the One who creates what He wills, chooses whatever He wills. Allaah mentions about His will in His creation.
Then Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) talks about His knowledge. He knows what is inside the breasts. This is why the Hukm belongs to Him. We humans, whenever we judge, don’t know what is in the heart of the person. We don’t have this perfect attribute.
3) In Surah Shura Verse 10:
وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبِّي عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ
And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allaah (He is the ruling Judge). (And say O Muhammad, Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam to these polytheists:) Such is Allaah, my Lord in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in all of my affairs and in repentance.
If you dispute regarding anything you should refer to Allaah’s Judgement.
Why should we refer to Allaah’s judgement? Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) answers us in verses 11 and 12:
فَاطِرُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ أَزْوَاجًا ۖ يَذْرَؤُكُمْ فِيهِ ۚ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you (in the wombs). There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.
لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth, He enlarges provision for whom He wills, and straightens (it for whom He wills). Verily! He is the All-Knower of everything.
Shall you seek a judge other than Allaah? Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us about His attributes and why is the Hukm for Him.
Ask yourself, do you create the heavens and earth? Are the keys of the heavens and earth in your hand? This is why Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is the only true judge. We should refer to Him. No one’s eyesight and hearing encompasses everything except Allaah’s (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala). So no one deserves to be a true Hakam except Allaah.
In verse 13:
شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ ۖ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ ۚ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۚ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ
He (Allaah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nuh (Noah), and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad, Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and ‘Iesa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion). Intolerable for the Mushrikun , is that to which you (O Muhammad, Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) call them to. Allaah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience.
Do you object on Allaah’s Hukm? Never dare to, because we are not perfect and Allaah is perfect. Allaah is telling us why it belongs to Him. He is perfect in His knowledge, creation. Then to Him deserves to set laws.
Making other than Allaah to legislate a law is a great injustice. In Surah Maaidah Verse 50:
أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
Do they then seek the judgement of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allaah for a people who have firm Faith.
There are two types of Hukm in this verse: One is of the Jahiliyyah (a law based on ignorance) and One is Hukm of Allaah. There is no third Hukm. So which should your refer to?
At the times of Jahiliyah their laws were killing their baby girls, oppression, women having no dignity, dealing with riba, drinking wine, etc. Whatever they wanted to do, they did. When Islam came Allaah set laws. Now compare the Hukm of Jahiliyyah with the Hukm of Allaah. Islam had come with justice, equality. No one has the right to set laws for mankind except Allaah.
The scholars in consensus said, “Whoever acts upon a man made law, saying it is better than Allaah’s law is considered a Kafir.”
We should not criticize the law of Allaah. Are you seeking the Hukm of Allaah or the Hukm of Jahiliyyah? There is no third option.
Only those who have certainty in belief will accept the Hukm of Allaah. Accordingly, after seeing these three evidences the conclusion is that Allaah’s Hukm is Perfect because they are based on perfect attributes of Allaah. Any decision other than Allaah’s is considered invalid.
Ash-Shinqeeti (Rahimahullaah) said, “Al Halaal is what Allaah made lawful. Al Haraam is what Allaah made unlawful. And the religion is what Allaah legislated. Every law other than Allaah’s law is falsehood. Whoever believes that man made laws are better or is like Allaah’s law he is considered a Kafir. Allah with His great attribute deserves to judge and no one else”
There is no one like Allaah. Our attributes are deficient, we cannot judge even between two people. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) has mentioned in the Qur’aan the qualities of the ones who should be a judge. Man made laws are deficient compared to Allaahs laws.
In Surah Nisaa Verse 59:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا
O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad, Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), if you believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is calling the believers. When Allaah calls we need to listen attentively. If you differ in anything refer to Allaah and His messenger if you believe. If you believe that Allaah is the only true Hakam with the perfect attributes then we will go to Allaah’s laws and accept His laws.
In Surah Kahf Verse 26:
قُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثُوا ۖ لَهُ غَيْبُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ أَبْصِرْ بِهِ وَأَسْمِعْ ۚ مَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا يُشْرِكُ فِي حُكْمِهِ أَحَدًا
Say: “Allaah knows best how long they stayed. With Him is (the knowledge of) the unseen of the heavens and the earth. How clearly He sees and hears (everything)! They have no Wali (Helper, Disposer of affairs, Protector, etc.) other than Him, and He makes none to share in His Decision and His Rule.”
What is the relation between the end of the verse and the beginning?
No one shares the Hukm with Allaah because He, alone, has the knowledge of the unseen.
Those who set the man made laws do they have the knowledge of the unseen? No. Therefore no one deserves to be a judge except Allaah.
In conclusion, Allaah is the only Hakam. To Him belongs the Hukum of the three kinds. No one truly deserves to set laws except Allaah who is perfect in attributes. If you believe Allaah is perfect then you will accept His Law. If you don’t refer to Allaah’s Law, you won’t believe it is perfect.
If you are asked to judge in any case between two people i.e. A woman might complain her husband is oppressing her, etc. How will you judge? Can you comprehend the case from all aspects? We don’t know the unseen, what she is concealing, so you don’t deserve to judge. But this means you judge according to the laws of Allaah. See what Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) and the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said. You refer to them in your judgement. Not according to your mind.
We don’t know! This is why we cannot rely on humans in our judgement, we have to refer to Allaah’s laws.
Accordingly, If I ask you about the concept of democracy what do you say? Democracy is the opinion of the majority. They say to give the people the right to rule themselves, set laws for themselves.
Ex: A thief broke into your neighbour’s house and robbed her. If we want to judge him according to democracy, the neighbour may want her thief to be killed. For us it will be enough to cut his hand. The one at the end of the street will say, “He’s poor, maybe he needs the money, so don’t punish him.” So whose judgement will we choose? Are we legible to set laws? Are we perfect in our judgement and our attributes?
This is against Islam, the law of Allaah. Only Allaah has the right to set laws and legislate. No one except Allaah. We have to refer to what Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) and the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said.
In democracy who is the judge?
The desire. Everyone judges according to their desire. Whatever they like, they put. If they don’t like, they rebel.
If they refer to Allaah and His messenger no mischief will happen in the land.
No one is better than Allaah in judgement This should be a belief in your heart. Judgement should be according to Allaah’s laws. He is the Lawmaker who has the perfect attributes and we need to refer to him in our disputes.
Bear in mind when you say,
“Radheetu billahi rabba, wa bil-islaami deena, wa bi-Muhammadin (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Nabiyyan.”
“I am pleased with Allaah as my Lord, with Islam as my religion and with Muhammad (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as my Prophet.”
This du’aa implies that you accept Allaah as a Lord. You accept all what He decides regarding your affairs. Whatever Allaah decides, whether a decreed matter or law, you should be satisfied. You say it from your heart. This is how you should live with the impact of the belief. Not being pleased with Allaah’s Hukm is considered weak belief in Allaah’s Names and Attributes. One of the impacts of belief is to be satisfied with Allaah’s Hukm.