The Names of Allaah: Al-Hakam, Al-Haakim & Al-Hakeem ,Part 9 (1 of 2) – Sunday 13th January, 2013
Out of Allaah’s grace upon His creation when He created them He didn’t make Himself unknown, rather He made himself known to us. The Qur’aan is all about Allaah’s names, attributes and actions. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) mentioned that when He brought Aadam and Hawwa (Eve) down to the earth He sent guidance.
In Surah Ta-Ha Verse 123:
(Allaah) said:”Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery.
When the guidance comes down we must follow it. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) sent messengers and books as guidance. Whoever follows Allaah’s guidance will never go astray nor will he be distressed.
In Verse 124:
وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ
“But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur’aan nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.”
Whoever turns away from Allaah’s guidance will go through distress and hardship. No matter how wealthy and healthy he is, as long as he is turning away from the guidance of Allaah he will not feel happy in this life and on the day of the judgement Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) will resurrect him blind.
Why will Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) resurrect him blind?
This is Hukm Jazaa’i. The recompense is of the same nature as the deed. He dealt with the guidance in this Dunya by being blind towards it. In this way he will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement.
Therefore Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) said in Verse 126:
قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ
(Allaah) will say: “Like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) came unto you, but you disregarded them (i.e. you left them, did not think deeply into them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected (in the Hell-fire, away from Allaah’s Mercy).”
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) told us He is Al-Hakam, Al Hakeem, Al Haakim in the Qur’aan. He is the only true Hakam. His Hukm is the true Hukm. What should our attitude be towards His decision? We have to accept it whether it is universal, decreed or a recompense decision.
The people who reject the laws of Allaah are behaving like Iblis. When Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) commanded him to prostrate to Aadam (‘Alayhis-salaam) he used his mind and judged on Allaah’s command. He [Iblis] said “I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.” [38:76]
We are studying Surah Al-Ma’idah because we are talking about Allaah, Al-Haakim, and it is full of Allaah’s commands. This Surah is called Surah Ahkaam.
How did we know this Surah is talking about Ahkaam?
‘Aaisha (Radhia-Allaahu ‘anha) said to Jubayr (Radhia-Allaahu ‘anhu), “Did you memorize Ma’idah” He said “yes” She said, “This is the last Surah revealed to the Prophet in Madinah regarding Halal and Haraam. Whatever is lawful in this Surah take it as lawful and whatever is unlawful take it as unlawful.”
Another way we knew was that in the first verse Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us to fulfill the ‘Uqood which is every fundamental in Islam. It is the covenant with Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) and the covenant with the people. ‘Uqood can be used for treaties, oaths, promises, contracts, etc.
The scholars said “This Surah is about the permissible and impermissible things in Islam. It talks about the food; what is lawful and unlawful, the drinks; what is unlawful and lawful, testifications, marriage, relations between the muslims and non-muslims, ‘Ibaadah”
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ ۚ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ
O you who believe! Fulfil (your) obligations. Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you (herein), game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihram for Hajj or ‘Umrah (pilgrimage). Verily, Allaah commands that which He wills. [Surah Al-Ma’idah:1]
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) ended the verse with:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ
”..Verily, Allaah commands that which He wills.”
You may ask why? Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) answers you at the last verse in the Surah.
لِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا فِيهِنَّ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
”To Allaah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things.” [Surah Al-Ma’idah:120]
It is as if Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is telling you that since everything belongs to Him and He is the King of the Heavens and the Earth, isn’t it logical that the King sets laws and commands? Because He is the King, He is the One who sets laws and judges. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is telling us why the Hukm belongs to Him. He is the One who created us and will judge us in the Dunya and Aakhirah.
Another thing which will make you know the theme of the Surah is the repeated words. Whenever you see one word repeated many times in that Surah it is as if Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is drawing your attention that this is the theme or topic of the Surah.
What word is repeated in Surah Al-Ma’idah?
Yahkum – It is repeated 15 times in this Surah in:
Verse 1, Verse 38, Verse 42 – Three times,Verse 43 – Two times,Verse 44 – Two times, Verse 45 , Verse 47 – Two times, Verse 48, Verse 49 and Verse 50.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is telling us that it is all about Hukm.
Another phrase that is mentioned is “O you who believe” – It is mentioned 16 times, which is the most it has been repeated in the Qur’aan.
Another word which is mentioned is “Meethaq” (Covenant) in Verse 7, Verse 12 – 14 and Verse 70.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) repeats that he took the covenant with Bani Israel. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is warning us not to be like them.
Another repeated word in this Surah is the word Ahwaa (Desire) in Verse 48, Verse 49, Verse 70 and Verse 77.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) took the covenant with Bani Israel but whenever Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) sent a messenger and the messenger didn’t go along with their desire they either belied him or killed him. They followed their desire.
From the repeated words (Hukm, Meethaq, Ahwaa) what do you conclude?
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) took a covenant with the believers, so we must abide by the law of Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) and judge according to Allaah’s Hukm and keep the Meethaq and not follow our desires. We should not resemble the Jews and the Christians.
The title of the Surah is Ma’idah. The story of the Ma’idah is in Verse 112 to 115. After they asked, Allaah said He will send it but whoever denies the sign, Allaah will punish them with a torment that Allaah had never afflicted anyone among mankind before. This indicates how much we have to keep the covenant with Allaah(Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala). If you promise Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) you have to keep your promise with Allaah otherwise punishment will befall you.
We will continue studying Surah Al-Ma’idah in our next post Inshaa Allaah.