The Names of Allaah Al-Hakam, Al-Haakim & Al-Hakeem ,Part 9 (2 of 2) – Sunday 13th January, 2013
What are the covenants with Allaah?
Surah Al-Ma’idah Verse 1:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ ۚ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ
– We have to fulfill the obligations between us and Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) and us and the people. The first call to the believers is concerning the unlawful and lawful food. He started the Surah with the lawful food (Cattle). The Cattle refers to camels, cows and sheep. These are lawful for us to eat except what Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) has made forbidden. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us what it is in Verse 3.
When you are in a state of Ihram you can’t hunt the games. It becomes unlawful to eat if a person hunted while in the state of Ihram.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُحِلُّوا شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلَا الْهَدْيَ وَلَا الْقَلَائِدَ وَلَا آمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا ۚ وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا ۚ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَن تَعْتَدُوا ۘ وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the Symbols of Allaah, nor of the Sacred Month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlanded people or animals, etc. [Marked by the garlands on their necks made from the outer part of the tree-stems (of Makkah) for their security], nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when you finish the Ihram (of Hajj or ‘Umrah), you may hunt, and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is Severe in punishment.
– Don’t violate the prohibitions and the symbols/rites of Allaah. What are these things?
- Symbols of Allaah such as the rites (Hajj and Umrah) and the sacrificial animals. We should not violate the sanctity of these things.
Shaikh Sa’di (Rahimahullaah) said, we should not violate them by action nor with belief, such as thinking that it is lawful when it is unlawful.
You should not even scare the birds that are in the vicinity of Al-Haram .
- The Sanctity of the sacred months by fighting or committing sins. We have four sacred months: Rajab, Dhul Qa’dah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram. We should not commit sins during these months.
- We should not abandon the practice of bringing the sacrifice to Makkah or to garland the animals by putting signs on their necks that they are distinguished by the rest of the cattle. Many people are abandoning this practice.
- We should not stop people who are heading towards Makkah or Madinah for Hajj or Umrah or seeking the bounty of Allaah.
Then, Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells you when you are allowed to hunt the games; when you finish Ihram.
- Justice. Don’t let the hatred towards anyone prevent you from dealing with them with justice. The disbelievers stopped the Muslims in the time of the Prophet from going for Hajj. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says don’t let the hatred towards them prevent them going to Makkah for business/trades. This is before the abrogation because after that no disbelievers are allowed to go to Makkah.
- Help one another in piety and righteousness and don’t help one another in Ithm and transgressions.
- Fear Allaah. We have to fear Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala). He is Severe in punishment.
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ ۗ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ ۚ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّإِثْمٍ ۙ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals – cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allaah, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allaah’s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal – unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) – and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of Allaah and sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above-mentioned meats), then surely, Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is now explaining what the prohibited types of food and animals.
They are: the dead animals, blood (the liver and spleen are exceptions), flesh of Swine, that which Allaah’s names have not been mentioned. (You cannot eat it nor can you give it to the poor to eat. You have to throw it away), the animal killed by strangling , the animal killed by a blow (being hit with a heavy object), the animal that had a headlong fall, the animal killed by goring of horns, two animals that fought and died upon that, and flesh eaten partly by a wild animal
Then, Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) gives us an exception. All these are unlawful UNLESS you have reached that animal and it hasn’t died yet. If you slaughter it before death it then becomes lawful for you to eat.
Also, animals slaughtered on stone-altars are forbidden. At the time of ignorance, there were many stones around the Ka’bah which were holy stones that they worshipped. They brought the animals and slaughtered them over these stones to bless it. These animals are unlawful to eat. They haven’t been slaughtered for Allaah’s sake.
Then, Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) mentions arrows which were used in the Days of Ignorance in order to seek a decision. Islam has abrogated this and brought Salaatul Istikhaarah. All what is mentioned is all Fisq (disobedience to Allaah).
Then, Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us the disbelievers have lost hope in the religion, so don’t fear them but fear Him. Then Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says that He has perfected our deen for us.
When a Jewish man heard this part of the verse he said to ‘Umar (Radhia-Allaahu ‘anhu), “If this Verse was revealed to us we would take this day as ‘Eid”.
We can’t say we have to take man-made laws. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) perfected our laws for us. We don’t need additions to our religion. We accept Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) as our Lord, Muhammed Salla-Allaahu alaihi wa sallam as our Messenger, and Islam as a religion.
Then, Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us whoever is in necessity, such as one who will die without eating, Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala), out of His Mercy, will allow him to eat that much which will satisfy his need and Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is forgiving and merciful.
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ ۖ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۙ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُم مِّنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
They ask you (O Muhammad Salla-Allaahu alaihi wa sallam) what is lawful for them (as food ). Say: “Lawful unto you are At-Tayyibat [all kind of Halal (lawful-good) foods which Allaah has made lawful (meat of slaughtered edible animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.)]. And those beasts and birds of prey which you have trained as hounds, training and teaching them (to catch) in the manner as directed to you by Allaah; so eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allaah over it, and fear Allah. Verily, Allaah is Swift in reckoning.”
– Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) tells us all kinds of Tayyibat are lawful for us. The falcon are used to catch certain kinds of birds and some dogs are trained for hunting. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is telling us that the animals caught by these hounds are lawful for us to eat with conditions.
The person who sends the hound to hunt should be a Muslim and he should mention the name of Allaah when he sends it, and the hound should not eat from the prey. You should train the hound not to eat it but just hold it with its canines or claws. In this case it will be lawful for you to eat. The dog is impure but Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) made it lawful when it catches the prey and doesn’t eat it. The verse ended with to fear Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) again.
Made lawful to you this day are At-Tayyibat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) foods, which Allah has made lawful (meat of slaughtered edible animals, etc., milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.). The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals, etc.) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time, when you have given their due Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. And whosoever disbelieves in the Oneness of Allaah and in all the other Articles of Faith [i.e. His (Allaah’s), Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], then fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers.
– Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is mentioning two kinds of lawful food and two kinds of lawful marriages. The two kinds of food are all kinds of Tayyibat and the food of the Jews and Christians, even their slaughtered animals. Generally speaking, the meat of Jews and Christians are lawful unless you are sure it’s been stunned or killed by a blow, etc. Say Bismillah and eat, you don’t have to be excessive and find out exactly, unless you found out that is slaughtered wrongly.
The two kinds of lawful marriages:
- The chaste believing women.
- Chaste women from among the Jews and Christians
It should be a complete marriage.
The verse ended with:
If you really believe in Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) you should keep what Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) has set and whoever has disbelieved all his deeds will be lost.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَٰكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janaba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allaah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.
– This is the third call. It is about the Salat, Whudhu, Ghusl and Tayammum. All acts of worship.
وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمِيثَاقَهُ الَّذِي وَاثَقَكُم بِهِ إِذْ قُلْتُمْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ
And remember Allaah’s Favour upon you and His Covenant with which He bound you when you said: “We hear and we obey.” And fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is All-Knower of the secrets of (your) breasts.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is reminding us to remember the grace of Allaah upon us and the Meethaq. We have to accept and say سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ””We hear, and we Obey”. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) took the covenant and we have to HEAR and OBEY.
The scholars concluded that the Muslim woman is not supposed to marry a Christian or a Jew, because Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) only mentioned that a man could marry the People of the Book.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَىٰ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا ۚ اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ
O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allaah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just; that is nearer to piety, and fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.
– This is the fourth call. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) commands us to observe justice. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) has mentioned us to Fear Allah 3 times already. In the Surah altogether it is mentioned, 12 times, after every obligation and command. It is mentioned 13 times in Surah Baqarah. Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) is stressing the matter that we should keep the covenant with Him.
We should be just and don’t let our hatred stop us from being just. Allaah, Al Hakam, commanded us to judge with justice.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) says, in a Hadith Qudsi reported by Muslim: O my Slaves I have forbidden Dhulm upon myself and I have forbidden Dhulm for you as well. Don’t wrong one another.
Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) said in Surah Nahl Verse 90:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ
Verily, Allaah enjoins Al-Adl (i.e. justice and worshipping none but Allaah Alone – Islamic Monotheism) and Al-Ihsan [i.e. to be patient in performing your duties to Allaah, totally for Allaah’s sake and in accordance with the Sunnah (legal ways) of the Prophet Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in a perfect manner], and giving (help) to kith and kin (i.e. all that Allaah has ordered you to give them e.g., wealth, visiting, looking after them, or any other kind of help, etc.): and forbids Al-Fahsha’ (i.e all evil deeds, e.g. illegal sexual acts, disobedience of parents, polytheism, to tell lies, to give false witness, to kill a life without right, etc.), and Al-Munkar (i.e all that is prohibited by Islamic law: polytheism of every kind, disbelief and every kind of evil deeds, etc.), and Al-Baghy (i.e. all kinds of oppression), He admonishes you, that you may take heed.
There are some who say that if one person commits a wrong, all the people should be punished and they think this is justice. Instead of this person coming on the Day of Judgement wronging one person, it is as if he wronged the whole people under his authority. For example, A Student may have done some thing wrong in class, and the teacher punishes the whole class for something one of them has done. Instead of this teacher coming on the day of Judgement wronging only this particular student, she will be bearing the sin of all her students. This is because she has been unjust to all of them.