The Names of Allah: Al-Hayy, Al-Qayoom – 10th May 2015
Continuation of the general study of Surat Al-Baqarah:
The theme of Surat Al-Baqarah is ‘Succession on the earth’ – Khilafah.
In the beginning of the Surah, Allah talks about the three categories of people, namely- the Believers, Disbelievers and Hypocrites.
The first command in the Qur’an is in Verse 21 to 22 of Surat Al-Baqarah, it is to worship Allah alone without associating any partners with him in worship.
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous –
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].
In Verse 30 Allah mentioned about the Prophet Adam (‘Alaihissalam).
وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”
The word Khaleefah in the Qur’an can be found only in this Surah in the above verse.
After the story of Adam, Allah mentioned the bad examples of successors in the land, and that is the example of the Jews. They were ungrateful and even killed their Prophets.
Verses 40-123 are all about Bani Israel.
In Verse 124 Allah mentioned the role model on earth, and that is the Prophet Ibrahim (‘Alaihissalam).
And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [ Allah ] said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.” [Abraham] said, “And of my descendants?” [ Allah ] said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.”
He commanded Ibrahim (‘Alaihissalam) to submit himself to Him and Ibrahim also commanded his children to submit themselves.
The right succession on the land will not be fulfilled except by establishing Islam.
Verse 142-184 discusses the best nation on the earth, and that is the nation of the Prophet Muhammad (Salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). In order to be the best, this nation required laws and legislations like fasting, charity, Hajj, rules pertaining to marriage, breastfeeding, divorce etc. some of these rules are mentioned in these verses.