The Name of Allaah, Ar-Razzaq (Part 4)
Allaah is the One that sustains and guarantees provision for all of creation. He provides for the believer and disbeliever; the enemy and the friend. He drives the means of earning to the weak who have no means. He is Ar-Razzaq who gives provision after provision; sustenance followed by sustenance. His providing has not ceased ever since He created the creation. His provision is of two kinds:
1) General Provision
This is for all of creation and it is the provision and nourishment of the body.
2) Special Provision
This is particular to the believers and it is the nourishment of the hearts with faith and knowledge. It is also inclusive of lawful earnings which aid the Religion of a person.
Continuation: The Impact of these Names on our Belief – Taken from Fiqh Al-Asmaa by Shaikh Abdul-Razzaq Al-Badr
#1 – Allaah reminds His servants in many verses in the Qur’an that He alone is their Provider / Sustainer who guarantees their food and Rizq. This word “Rizq” has been mentioned in two contexts in the Qur’an:
1) In the context of favoring and reminding us of His bestowal of favors
2) In the context of Allaah commanding His creation with certain acts of worship
E.g. The Command of Tawheed
In Surat Ar-Rum [30:40]:
اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ۖ هَلْ مِن شُرَكَائِكُم مَّن يَفْعَلُ مِن ذَٰلِكُم مِّن شَيْءٍ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
“Allaah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life (on the Day of Resurrection). Is there any of your (so-called) partners (of Allaah) that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that (evil) they associate (with Him).”
The partners you associate with Allaah possess no power to do any of the above. Look at those who are worshipped besides Allaah. Look at Jesus عليه السلام. Who created him? When he was born, who gave him sustenance? Can he cause death or give life? Allaah is the only One who creates, provides, causes death, and gives life. Therefore, He alone deserves to be worshipped.
Moreover, if Allaah withholds provision from people, none has the power to grant it to them without His permission. Allaah says in Surat Faatir [35:2]:
مَّا يَفْتَحِ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحْمَةٍ فَلَا مُمْسِكَ لَهَا ۖ وَمَا يُمْسِكْ فَلَا مُرْسِلَ لَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
“Whatever of mercy (i.e. of good) Allaah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”
Al-Mugheera bin Shu’ba رضي الله عنه narrated that the Prophet ﷺ used to say after he concluded every prayer:
لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد، وهو على كل شيء قدير. اللهم لا مانع لما أعطيت، ولا معطي لما منعت، ولا ينفع ذا الجد منك الجد
La ilaha illAllaahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul-mulku, wa lahul-hamdu, wa Huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadir. Allaahumma la mani’a lima a’tayta, wa la mu’tiya lima mana’ta, wa la yanfa’u dhal-jaddi, minkal-jadd
There is no true god except Allaah. He is One and He has no partner with Him, His is the sovereignty and His is the praise, and He is Omnipotent. O Allaah! None can hold back that which You bestow, and none can bestow that which You hold back; and the greatness of the great will be of no avail to them against You. [Bukhaari and Muslim]
Allaah alone is the Provider. He is the only One Who created us and He is the only One Who provides for us; thus, He is the only One we have to dedicate and attach our hearts to. This is Tawheed. The Name Ar-Razzaq corrects our Tawheed.
In Surat Faatir [35:3]:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ
“O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allaah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allaah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? La ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). How then are you turning away (from Him)?”
And in Surat Saba’ [34:24]:
قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ وَإِنَّا أَوْ إِيَّاكُمْ لَعَلَىٰ هُدًى أَوْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ
“Say (O Muhammad ﷺ to these polytheists, pagans, etc.) ‘Who gives you provision from the heavens and the earth?’ Say: ‘Allaah, And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in a plain error.’”
Because Allaah is the only One Who provides for us, He is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped.
Why do the polytheists worship idols? They think that their idols can provide for them, protect them, repel harm from them, and bring them good. Allaah says in Surat An-Nahl [16:73-74]:
وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِّنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ
“And they worship others besides Allaah, such as do not and cannot own any provision for them from the heavens or the earth.”
فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثَالَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
“So put not forward similitudes for Allaah (as there is nothing similar to Him, nor He resembles anything). Truly! Allaah knows and you know not.”
Attributing blessings to other than Allaah is Minor Shirk
In Surat An-Nahl [16:83]:
يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنكِرُونَهَا وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
“They recognize the Grace of Allaah, yet they deny it (by worshipping others besides Allaah) and most of them are disbelievers.”
Surat An-Nahl talks about the blessings of Allaah. After Allaah mentions many favors in detail, He mentions the above verse.
There are two matters that should be known:
a) The higher the faith of a person is, the more he will attribute blessings to Allaah alone. Similarly, the lower the faith of a person, the more he will attribute blessings to other than Allaah.
b) Attributing blessings to Allaah is related to Tawheed Ar-Ruboobiyah. Ar-Ruboobiyah is derived from the name Ar-Rabb. Allaah is our Rabb (Lord) Who nurtures us with His favo He is the One Who created us and He is the One Who provides us with provision. If you attribute Allaah’s favors to someone besides Him, it indicates a defect in your belief in the Oneness of Allaah’s Ruboobiyah, and this accordingly affects your faith and worship of Allaah.
E.g. There is an upright person – He prays, fasts, fulfils the duties towards Allaah, his family, friends, etc. but in his heart, he is a little attached to the means. He is afflicted with daughters who are not married, and he is worried. He tells his wife to let his daughters beautify themselves and then take them to the ladies’ gatherings, thinking that this will bring a husband for them, not Allaah.
The provision is detained behind the means and Allaah created us by nature to strive and take the eans. We are ordered by the Shari’ah to take the means. However, the problem lies in the person being attached to the means, thinking that he will surely get the provision if he takes it (the means). He does this instead of taking the means while his heart is attached to Allaah; acknowledging that He is Ar-Razzaq and asking Him to bless the means for him. This is a deficiency in ones Tawheed.
If all people think in this way, it will affect the entire community. People will falsely assume that if they do not hasten towards the morsel they want, someone else will take it. They will fight for the provision which Allaah has already written for them. It should be clear in our hearts that Allaah guaranteed provision for everyone – if Allaah wrote a morsel of food for you, you will get it.
Another example: There are two people. One goes from a city to another by bus while another goes by airplane. Those who take the bus usually rush because they are afraid someone will take their seat. The one who goes on the airplane knows his seat before he goes to the plane, so he walks to the plane in a calm and subdued manner; with no fighting and pushing. He knows that no one will take his seat. This is the state of the believer in the Dunya. The believer walks in peace because he knows that no one can take his provision; it is reserved by Allaah for him. So, he walks without any push or any fight. However, the one whose belief is weak is like the one who takes the bus.
This does not mean you should abandon the means. We are commanded by Allaah to take the means but to be at rest. Take the means and ask Allaah to bless them for you and do not fight the people for what you want.
In Surat Aal-‘Imraan [3:133], Allaah says in the context of forgiveness and Paradise:
وَسَارِعُوا إِلَىٰ مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
“And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden as wide as the heavens and earth, prepared for the righteous
But He said in the context of provision in Surat Al-Mulk [67:15]:
هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِن رِّزْقِهِ ۖ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ
“He it is, Who has made the earth subservient to you (i.e. easy for you to walk, to live and to do agriculture on it, etc.), so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision, and to Him will be the Resurrection.”
E.g. Happiness is a provision from Allaah and He created means to attain it. People equate happiness to having this world. If you have money, a house, enough money in the bank, you are a happy person, and if you lack any of these you are living in misery. Yet Allaah does not mention happiness in the Qur’an except in the context of the people of Paradise. He says in Surat Hud [11:108]:
وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ سُعِدُوا فَفِي الْجَنَّةِ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ رَبُّكَ ۖ عَطَاءً غَيْرَ مَجْذُوذٍ
“And those who are happy, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord will, a gift without an end.”
And He mentioned the means to happiness in Surat Muhammad [47:2]:
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۙ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ
“But those who believe and do righteous good deeds and believe in that which is sent down to Muhammad ﷺ, for it is the truth from their Lord. He will expiate from them their sins, and will make good their state.”
The means for peace of mind and rest in the heart:
b) Good Deeds
c) Belief in what was revealed upon Muhammad ﷺ
How will Allaah deal with them? He will expiate their sins and make their state good.
If a person always thinks: I built this house. I support these children. I give money to this helper. I got this position. How would his gratitude to Allaah be? It would be deficient.
You a receive a gift, who is the first person that comes to your heart, Allaah or the one who gave you the gift? Do you think that Allaah is the Provider and the person is only the means through which you received the gift? This is a test for your belief in Allaah Ar-Razzaq. Belief is shown in the first moment, i.e. who comes to your heart first.
E.g. There are people who, when Allaah gives them a blessing, say: “I got it because I put in effort (worked for it).”
This was the same attitude Qarun had when he attributed his wealth to his knowledge. He thought that he attained his degree of highness over the people by his effort.
E.g. There are some Seekers of Knowledge who, after Allaah blessed them with knowledge, say: “It is because I worked hard and studied day and night.” But who opened their chest and made them love knowledge?
Ones sitting in a gathering is not except from Allaah. He is the One who opens your chest and endears knowledge to your heart. No one can open your heart and put the love of knowledge in it except Allaah.
E.g. A woman was sick. Allaah made it easy for her to take a certain medicine or go to a certain doctor, and she is cured. After she is cured she talks about the medicine, the doctor, the means, etc. although she knows that the cure is from Allaah.
These people know that no one had given them this except Allaah. They know that had it not been for the provision from Allaah they would not be able to live. They know it, but their attitude is that they deny it. In their hearts they believe that Allaah is the Provider, but when they talk, they talk about the means. They attribute it to other than Allaah, so they committed Shirk with their tongues.