Shaikh Abdur-Razzaq al-Badr حفظه الله mentioned the virtues of knowing the Names of Allah in his book Fiqh Al-Asmaa.
أن الله سبحانه يحب أسماءه و صفاته و يحب ظهور آثارها في خلقه، وهذا من لوازم كماله فهو وتر يحب الوتر، جميل يحب الجمال، عليم يحب العلماء، جواد يحب الأجواد، قويّ و المؤمن القوي أحب إليه من المؤمن الضعيف، حيي يحب أهل الحياء، تواب يحب التوابين، شكور يحب الشاكرين، صادق يحب الصادقين، محسن يحب المحسنين، رحيم يحب الرحماء، و إنما يرحم من عباده الرحماء، ستير يحب من يستر على عباده، عفوّ يحب من يعفو عنهم، بر يحب البر و أهله، عدل يحب العدل، و يجازي عباده بحسب وجود هذه الصفات وجوداً و عدماً. وهذا باب واسع يدل على شرف هذا العلم و فضله.
Allah loves His Names and His Attributes; He loves them ( the impacts) to be shown on His creation. Because Allaah is Perfect, this entails perfect knowledge. Accordingly, He is Witr and He loves Witr, He is Beautiful and loves beauty, He is Knowledgeable and loves the knowledgeable people, He is Jawwaad and He loves Generosity, He is Strong and the strong believer is more beloved to Him than the weak believer, He is Modest and loves the people of modesty, He is At-Tawwab and loves the repentant, He is Ash-Shakoor and loves the grateful, He is Truthful and loves the truthful, He is Muhsin and loves the good-doers, He is Merciful and loves those who show mercy – and He shows mercy to His slaves who are merciful to others, He is As-Sitteer and loves those who conceal the defects of His slaves, He is Pardoning and loves those who pardon others, He is Barr and loves Birr and its people, He is Just and loves justice, And He recompenses His slaves in accordance to the amount of presence or absence of these attributes. And this is a vast door which points to the nobility of this knowledge and its virtues.
This post is a continuation of the Name of Allah Al-‘Aleem العليم (Part 14) in which we mentioned the three ranks of Qadar – Decree in detail. This post takes off from where we stopped in the Part 14, explaining the fourth rank of Al-Qadar – Decree.
Al-Qadar (Decree) has two meanings:
1) التقدير – at-Taqdeer Allah’s action of decreeing
2) المقدر – al-Muqaddar What Allah has decreed before the creation of the heavens and earth by 50,000 years.
When you believe in the Qadar, you believe in the Ruboobiyyah of Allah (Allah’s action of decreeing).
The fourth rank of Al-Qadar is the Creation.
4) Creation (الخلق)
We believe that Allah is the Creator of everything خالق كل. There is nothing in the heavens or on the earth but Allah has created it. He is its Owner, He disposes its affairs, and He has full authority and power over it. Allah has created everything, including our actions.
Our actions comprise two things:
a) Firm Will إرادة جازمة
Since knowledge is a common attribute of Allah and the Creation, how do we establish Tawheed with regards to it?
To establish Tawheed, we have to single Allah out in that attribute and negate it from others. But since knowledge is a common attribute of Allah and the Creation, we have to attribute Perfect complete knowledge to Allah and attribute deficient knowledge to the creation. We need to compare the knowledge of the creation to the knowledge of Allah in order to know how to make Tawheed.
The Knowledge of the Creation Read the rest of this entry
Allah’s Name العليم implies the attribute of العلم (Knowledge). Allah is attributed with having knowledge, and the creation also has knowledge. How can we single Allah out with this attribute?
- We affirm perfect and comprehensive knowledge to Allah
- We affirm deficient knowledge to the creation
- We negate any deficiency in the knowledge of Allah (ignorance, forgetfulness, etc.)
Allah affirmed perfect comprehensive knowledge to Himself in many verses in the Qur’an, for example: Read the rest of this entry
The Meaning of the Name العليم
Sheikh Abdur-Razzaq Al-Badr حفظه الله said:
- Allah mentioned the Vastness of His Knowledge ذكر سبحانه سعة علمه:
For example, in Surah Ta-Ha [20:98]:
“Your Ilah (God) is only Allah, the One (La ilaha illa Huwa) (none has the right to be worshipped but He). He has full knowledge of all things.”
- Allah’s Knowledge Encompasses Everything; Nothing escapes His Knowledge ذكر سبحانه إحاطة علمه بكل شيء
For example, in Surah Aal-Imran [3:120]:
“If a good befalls you, it grieves them, but if some evil overtakes you, they rejoice at it. But if you remain patient and become Al-Muttaqun, not the least harm will their cunning do to you. Surely, Allah surrounds all that they do.”
- Allah’s Knowledge encompasses the Secret and Open, the Unseen and Witnessed Matters. ذكر تبارك و تعالى إحاطة علمه بالسرائر و المعلنات و الغيب و الشهادة
- Allah Knows all that is in the Heavens and Earth ذكر سبحانه علمه بما في السماوات و الأرض
- Allah Knows the The Keys of the Unseen, and none knows it except Him ذكر سبحانه اختصاصه بمفاتح الغيب، فلا يعلمها إلا هو
Impacts of Believing in the Name of Allah العليم
1) Allah mentioned the vastness of His Knowledge in many verses.
In his explanation of Allah’s Name العليم in فقه الأسماء الحسنى, Sheikh Abdur-Razzaq Al-Badr (حفظه الله) said:
a) In Surah Al-An’am [6:80]
“His people disputed with him. He said: “Do you dispute with me concerning Allah while He has guided me, and I fear not those whom you associate with Allah in worship. (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Lord (Allah) wills something. My Lord comprehends in His Knowledge all things. Will you not then remember?”
Allah knows about His worshippers, what they need, how they feel, what they are seeking, and He will accordingly give it to them. But these idols do not have any knowledge. So it is Allah who deserves to be worshipped?
b) In Surah Ghafir [40:7]
“Those (angels) who bear the Throne (of Allah) and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah) (saying): “Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your Way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire!”
The Bearers of the Throne are above the 7 Heavens, carrying the Throne of Allah. And yet they pray for the believers on earth – specifically those who transgressed against themselves and then repented to Allah.
Allah Knows about the repentance of the people, their real state, if they really feel remorse over the sin and abandoned it. This is why the Angels said, “ربنا وسعت كل شيء رحمة و علما” – “Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge”
It is as if they are saying: O Allah you know that they committed sins before, and you know what the sin they committed are, and they are repenting to you, and you know if their repentance is true; if they are feeling regret and remorse, because Your Knowledge encompasses everything. So forgive their sins.
We ask Allah’s forgiveness using this du’a. Say “ربي وسعت كل شيء رحمة و علما فاغفرلي” (O my Lord, You encompass everything in mercy and knowledge, so forgive me)
This supplication demonstrates your belief in the Knowledge and Mercy of Allah, and this is more deserving of being accepted.
2) And Allah mentioned that He surrounds everything with His Knowledge.
a) Surah Talaq [65:12]
“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge.”
Allah encompasses everything in His Great Dominion with His Knowledge. Nothing is hidden from His Knowledge; Nothing escapes his Knowledge.
b) Surah Aal-Imran [3:120]
“If a good befalls you, it grieves them, but if some evil overtakes you, they rejoice at it. But if you remain patient and become Al-Muttaqun (the pious), not the least harm will their cunning do to you. Surely, Allah surrounds all that they do.”
Allah consoles the believers and threatens the disbelievers in this verse. The state of the disbelievers is that it grieves them whenever they see any good befalling the believers and rejoice when any evil overtakes them.
In this verse, Allah assures the believers that no harm will touch because of what the disbelievers plot under two conditions:
1) “تصبروا” – being Patient
2) “تتقوا” – Practicing Taqwa
No matter what they plot against you, they will never harm you. Why?
“إن الله يعملون محيط” – (Because) Allah Encompasses everything they do
Taking the two means of protection results in repulsion of their plot. Allah surrounds them and Allah is Able to repel their plot.
E.g. If, for example, someone comes complaining of the state of the Muslim World, and how the disbelievers are plotting against them, how would you reply to them? Let them plot. If you are patient and have Taqwa of Allah then no harm will touch you.
Patience includes holding your tongue from complaining, gossiping, backbiting, etc. Showing patience when calamities befall us, when obeying Allah, when refraining from disobeying Allah.
Taqwa is by acting upon the command of Allah and avoiding the prohibitions of Allah, not by plotting back against the person Usually, the plot is hidden. We do not know about it; but Allah Knows. He Surrounds everything in His Knowledge.
Do not be afraid and do not plot back against that person, even if you know who it is. And if you do not know, it is not required from you to look for the person who is trying to plot against you is. You should focus on obeying Allah and practicing Taqwa in your life. Their plot will never harm you, because Allah is Able to repel their harm from you. Just be patient and have Taqwa.
c) Surah Hud [11:91-92]
“They said: “O Shu’aib! We do not understand much of what you say, and we see you a weak (man, it is said that he was a blind man) among us. Were it not for your family, we should certainly have stoned you and you are not powerful against us.” When Shu’ayb عليه السلام told them to ask forgiveness, that Allah is Wadood, they said that they did not understand what he was saying and threatened to kill him. What was Shu’ayb عليه السلام’s response? “He said: “O my people! Is then my family of more weight with you than Allah? And you have cast Him away behind your backs. Verily, my Lord is surrounding all that you do.”
If you notice the “إحاطة العلم الله” is mostly used as a response to those who attack or threaten the believers. This has a similar meaning to the verse in Surah Aal-Imran. Allah is Able to repel their plotting and harm. If you go through a similar situation,where someone threatens you, then if you are on the right path, your belief that Allah surrounds and encomapasses everything with His Knowledge should make you strong. As long as you are patient and have Taqwa of Allah, no harm will touch you. The people of falsehood may sometimes overcome the believers, and this is a test from Allah for your belief and truthfulnessIf you go through a similar situation, sooner or later Allah will elevate your fame, or even after your death, or on the Day of Judgement. But have sure belief that this will happen.
Al-Bukhari went through a calamity at the end of his life. People forged a lie against him in order for people to not to come to his gatherings. They claimed that he had the wrong belief in Allah and the Qur’an. He left his own village, and died. But after his death, Allah elevated his fame. And look at Bukhari رحمه الله, it has been over a 1000 years, and now everyone says Bukhari along with رحمه الله. Millions of people send mercy on him. And his book is the most authentic after the Qur’an. Allah is the One who elevated him.
The life of this world is a battle between Patience, Taqwa, and your Rights. The one who shows patience and practices Taqwa will take his rights after some time. Patience and Taqwa is our weapon in facing the calamities in this life. And Allah will never let the reward of the Muhsineen go in vain.
d) In Surah Nisa [4:108]
“They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah , and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as He does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah of what they do, encompassing.”
This is in the context of the hypocrites. They hide their crimes from men, but not from Allah. When they leave the Prophet ﷺ and go home, they plot at night against him. Most of the verses about the إحاطة العلم الله is regarding plotting, because plotting is usually hidden, and no one knows about it except Allah. This is like a person who is smiling at you and hiding a dagger behind his back to kill you. He does not know that Allah is surrounding him with Knowledge.
Being aware that Allah is with us with His Knowledge will cause one to show shyness infront of Allah.You would feel shy to conceal an ill-intention, saying and doing things contrary to what your heart conceals.
It is not of the attitude of the believers to plot against others. The one who hides his crime from people and does not hide his crime from Allah is not a sincere person. The sign of sincerity is that the deeds of the person in front of people is the same as when he is alone in his house. There is no difference his state in front of the people nor when he is alone in his house. The praise of the people does not affect him, nor does the blame of the people, nor does the punishment of the people, nor the reward and gifts from the people. He is the same person and performs the same deeds whether the people praise or dispraise him, whether they give him or do not give him, whether he is alone or in public.
Due to the lack of belief that Allah’s knowledge encompasses everything the hypocrites hid their crimes from the people. and plotted behind their backs. They show that they are good in front of people, whilst hiding the knife behind their backs. Allah Knows about Everything.
One of the Noble Names of Allah is Al-‘Aleem; which Allah mentioned in over 150 verses in the Qur’an. This Name implies the Attribute of العلم (Knowledge) which is a صفة ذاتية (Intrinsic Attribute); Allah has always been attributed with Knowledge, and will always be attributed with it. It is an eternal attribute which never stops at any moment or any time.
Allah created the creation, and He Knows about His creation.
Surah Al-Baqarah Verse 29
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything.
As As-Sa’di mentioned: In many verses in the Qur’an, Allah connected His Creation with His Knowledge, to emphasize that He Created everything and knows about everything He Created. It is impossible that Allah created something and does not know about it. He Knows what benefits His Creation and He accordingly set laws for us.
How can we judge Allah, His Actions and Laws with our deficient minds? This is due to lack of belief in Allah’s Name العليم, and this is what is happening nowadays.
Our belief should affect our behavior. Read the rest of this entry